Look: Spinach leaves tend to be narrow to round leaves with no protrusions. They are dark, tender and soft to the touch.
Taste: Often the exclusive foundation of a salad, spinach is hearty with a bitter finish.
Nurition Factor: Spinach is a great source of the eye supporting antioxidant, lutein. Its also high in iron, calcium, vitamin K, vitamin A, Vitamin C and B vitamins. Although spinach packs more iron per gram than beef, it also contains oxalates which can bind to both calcium and iron, compromising absorption. To maximize absorption of these minerals, try a citrus-based dressing as vitamin C can boost iron absorption.
Fun Fact: The Florence, Italy-born wife of King Henry II of France, Queen Catherine de’ Medici, loved spinach so much that she insisted it be served at every meal. To this day, her love of spinach is the reason we call recipes that are dressed with spinach “Florentine.”
Look: Romaine heads are tall with long leaves and a firm rib in the center. They tend to be lighter and more firm at the base and darker more loosely packs towards the tip. Romaine, which comes in both green and red varieties, is one of the only common salad greens that can accurately be called “lettuce.”
Taste: Romaine leaves are very mild with an increasingly bitter taste closer to the rib.
Nurition Factor: This crunchy green a very hydrating leaf and a great source of vitamin A, vitamin C and folate.
Fun Fact: As you probably know, the romaine leaf is the only green used in Caesar salads. But what you might not know is that the Caesar salad was invented in the U.S. by restaurant owner Caesar Cardini. In 1924, a Fourth of July rush depleted his kitchen of most ingredients and in a moment of desperation, Caesar sprung into action creating a salad with the ingredients he had left: Romaine, olive oil, garlic, vinegar, Worcestershire sauce, lemon juice, egg, Parmesan and croutons.
Look: Fast becoming a salad staple, the arugula leaves are long and skinny, darker in color and have 2-3 side projections.
Taste: Arugula is known for being a very rich green with peppery notes.
Nurition Factor: Arugula is an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, and di-indolyl-methane (DIM), a plant compound thought to promote healthy hormone balance.
Fun Fact: Arugula also grows tiny flowers which are often used as edible garnishes on salads.
Look: Also known as “curly endive,” Frisée’s leaves are skinny and curly with colors that range from light yellow to yellow green. (I always remembered the name of this leaf by recalling that they look frazzled– “frazzeled frisée”).
Taste: This green is mildly bitter and nutty with notes of pepper.
Nutrition Factor: These leaves are a great source of vitamin C and fiber.
Fun Fact: Did your salad seem huge but you’re still hungry? Frisée is often used by restaurants to add volume and dimension to salads, making the salads look bigger than they really are.
5. Belgium Endive
Look: A member of the chicory family, Belgium endive is tall, firm and crispy with satiny leaves that are often white to pale yellow in color.
Taste: Belgium endive is mildly bitter with the more mild tastes coming from the lighter end of the leaf.
Nutrition Factor: Endive is an excellent source of beta carotene, B vitamins and fiber.
Fun Fact: Because the leaf of the Belgium endive is so strong and has a “scoop” shape, it is often used as a serving spoon for many appetizers.
Look: Watercress is characterized by its long, hollow stem and small round green leaves.
Taste: This green is peppery with a tangy flavor.
Nutrition Factor: Watercress is known to have many health benefits. In addition to being an excellent source of iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid, it is thought that watercress may act as a diuretic, an expectorant, and a digestive aid.
Fun Fact: In his 1617 publication of The Surgeon’s Mate, John Woodall recommended watercress as a potential remedy for scurvy.
7. Butterhead Lettuce
Look: Another of the true “Luttuces,” Butterhead Lettuce is actually an umbrella term used to describe Boston, Bibb, Buttercrunch, and Tom Thumb. Due to their delicacy, you’ll typically find these leaves packed in plastic containers. Butterhead lettuce heads are loosely packed with small, round and soft leaves that are range from pale green to dark green in color.
Taste: These leaves are very mild and smooth (like butter). Sometimes they are even a little on the sweeter side.
Nutrition Factor: All varieties of butterhead lettuce are high in vitamin K and is very hydrating. They usually average about 96% water (how cleansing!).
Fun Fact: Lettuce was actually named for its milk. The latin name, Lactuca sativa, was derived from the Latin word for milk, “lac” which referred to the plant’s milky juice.
8. Crisphead Lettuce
Look: The final “lettuce” on this list, crisphead lettuce, also known as iceberg, is larger in size with tightly packed leaves that are light pale green in color.
Taste: The most neutral of salad greens, crisphead lettuce is crisp and very mild.
Nutrition Factor: Similar to butterhead lettuce, crisphead lettuce is a good source of vitamin K, water and fiber.
Fun Fact: It is thought that ancient Romans and ancient Egyptians consumed both crisphead lettuce and butterhead lettuce at the end of evening meals because they contain Lactucarium, an opiate-like substance thought to induce sleep.
Look: Often sold still planted in a pot of soil, Mâche has a long, white stem and small oval-shaped leaves.
Taste: This less common but delicious green is very mild and slightly sweet.
Nutrition Factor: Mâche is thought to be very high in vitamin C as lettuce, beta-carotene and B vitamins.
Fun Fact: A more common name for Mâche is corn salad which refers to the fact that it often grew as a weed in wheat fields.
Look: Deep green in color with a light stalk, Misuna leaves are typically medium in size with jagged edges.
Taste: Mizuna is slightly peppery with a distinct mustard-like flavor.
Nutrition Factor: This leafy green is high in carotenoids and is a great source of fiber.
Fun Fact: Indigenous to Japan, Mizuna is highly resistant to cold weather and grown during the cold winter months (the Japanese also enjoy this green pickled).